Interior design is making the best possible use of the available space. It should begin with the function. The function is a list that analyse the spaces that must take place in the building. It serves as an outline of the requirements of the building and describes spaces with assigned square footage and description of function, use, or activities. Interior designers assist in enhancing functionality and many other qualities in interior spaces. They provide building design services to create comprehensive solutions for specific intended purposes or uses called ‘programmed interiors.’
What is Space Planning?
Space planning is an in-depth analysis of how physical space is used in structures. It considers the purpose of spaces and who will use them. It is a process that takes several steps, and it’s an important component for the work of designers. Actually, it’s the most important aspect of the profession; because space planning makes a building perform at their best for the special needs and requirements of clients or users.
It helps ensure efficient use of floor space without wasting it. If done right, it also accounts for all possible uses of a given space. When the process is completed, it can result in a comprehensive space plan. This is a drawing that identifies the needs and required elements of spaces, including windows, doors, and even furniture within them.
A space plan is developed by solving many design problems. But space planning is not like mathematics or physics; there is no single correct answer to the problems. Nonetheless, interior designers seek the best working and practical solutions in meeting the required criteria. As no single answer is correct, there is no single step solution in space planning; it is a process of many phases.
Purpose and Use of Spaces
First, the purpose of structures and spaces needs to be defined. How will the space be used? A building might be commercial, industrial, or residential. Structures with different purposes have very different space needs, and their use will help determine how it is allocated. Some spaces might have more than one function, and they might need to be flexible. Prioritizing which need comes first might not be easy, but it might be crucial to how the space is designed. So the designer needs to be aware of all the elements to come up with the best solution.
Programming and Predesign
At the pre-design phase, the intended purpose for a project is presented to the designer. The program defines the clients or user’s needs and spaces with the square footage required for each function.The analysis of the program and project requirements is called programming. Programming involves research, data gathering and qualitative and quantitative analysis of user needs and spaces including the site. In programming, the criteria matrix shows program requirements and spaces in a grid system.
Programming serves as the primary guide for space planning because programming determines the range of functions, use, and activities and standards for space allocation, configuration, and layout (such as ergonomics and codes) to be used in planning. Thus, it’s the analysis phase of design where the parameters of design are established.
The Elements of Design
Line is a basic element of design and contributes greatly towards the overall mood created in any arrangement. Lines have been associated with the position of the human body. Horizontal lines suggest repose, steadiness, calmness and a solid stability.Vertical lines suggest life, activity and dignity. They create a feeling of height.
Form and line are closely related. It is a combination of lines that gives rise to forms. Though hard to define, form is something solid and tangible. It is an important element in home furnishing. Without giving due consideration to the harmony of form in any room, an entire arrangement may become pointless.
Texture generally leads one to think of the ‘feel’ of a fabric – its roughness, smoothness, shine or dullness, softness or stiffness, its weight, its fall and so on. In home furnishings, the word ‘texture’ may be used in a wider sense and refers to the finish of walls, rugs or other floor coverings, wood work, paintings, ceramics and any other surfaces in the room. It is often possible to give certain illusions of texture through the clever use of colour or other techniques.
Color is an extremely effective instrument enabling the improvement in the interior proportions. Color is probably the most important factor to consider when trying to change room’s proportions through optical illusion. Color has the ability to manipulate our sense of space.
Color is an important aspect of every culture. Colors can represent love, anger, sadness, infidelity, and religious affiliations, depending on the culture. In this lesson, we will look at the different meanings of colors in cultures around the world.
Colorscarry deep meanings with them in every culture. Western, Far Eastern, Middle Eastern, Indian, and African cultures have stark differences in the symbolism of colors within their cultures. For instance, in some cultures, white represents innocence, but in others, it can represent death. The symbolism of colors often stems from religious, spiritual, social, or historical events.
Patterns in a room may be seen in designs and motifs, repeated on cloth, in the arrangement of pictures on a wall, in the arrangement of curious and decorative items and also in the arrangement of furniture itself. However, patterns (prints or designs) refer generally to additional enrichment added to any surface. The judicious use of patterns lends liveliness and interest to a room.
Light is an essential element in the field of interior design. Light, like color, can alter psychological and physiological reactions. Proper lighting can enhance task performance or aesthetics. The quantity and quality of light affect the apparent size, shape and character of an object. Interior designers can alter the perception of space in a room, focus attention, set moods, define texture, or create a specific atmosphere through the appropriate use of light.Additionally, the fixtures that house the actual light source can be designed to serve as decorative art or sculpture.
The importance of space is often overlooked. The use of an optimum amount of furniture creates empty spaces for movement, gives rooms a sense of freedom and can affect the moods created by any scheme of interior decoration. Space can be increased by using few partitions, providing larger openings between rooms, providing glass walls and also by the building of porches, verandahs and similar extensions. Often in small cramped rooms, the effective use of mirrors on opposing walls creates an illusion of space so that the room appears larger than its true size.
Role of Furniture:
Furniture is an industrial design product. Furniture matters the most when designing a space. It’s important because interior design is concerned with the design of spaces and what makes the space is furniture. Every furniture is made with user needs and function in mind. Function determines what a furniture should do like sleeping (beds), eating (tables), or seating (chairs). Function determines which furniture and furnishings (appliances, fittings and accessories) are necessary for the usage of space, too. Perhaps furniture matters the most when the design is implemented as furniture brings function to space.
Selection of furniture involves needs of the family, space, utilityand suitability to purpose, construction, finish, comfort, design, maintenance, mobility, reputation of the dealer. Materials used are wood, metals, plastic, glass etc.
Its better to be sustainable.
Sustainable interior design creates interior spaces using design principles such as functionality, accessibility, and aesthetics and expands the focus to include environmental considerations.An eco-friendly environment requires a certain commitment and social involvement such as:
• Energy efficiency and renewable energy
• Energy efficient lighting
• Water efficiency
• Indoor Gardening etc.